by Patty Coe and
- Collision Fault: Two plates moving toward each other resulting in
both plates pushing upwards.
- Converging boundary: Place where two plates moving from different directions meet head-on. Both collision and subduction faults are types of a converging boundary.
- Continental drift: The Idea that continents move from one part of Earth to another.
- Convection: Movement of a fluid because of density differences.
- Density: Ratio between the mass and the volume of a substance, found by dividing an object's mass by its volume.
- Diverging boundary: Place where two plates of lithosphere are moving apart and new lithosphere is formed.
- Equator: Imaginary east-west line that circles Earth halfway between geographic poles.
- Epicenter: Point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus.
- Focus: The true location of an earthquake and source of seismic waves.
- Latitude: Measurement of angular distance on the Earth north or south of the equator.
- Lithoshpere: Solid outer layer of Earth including both crust and upper mantle.
- Longitude: Measurement of angular distance on the Earth east or west of the prime meridian.
- Magma: Melted rock beneath Earth's surface.
- Mid-ocean Ridge: Long chain of underwater mountains.
- Normal Fault: A fault where the rocks above the fault move down.
- Pangaea: Name of the hypothetical great continent thought to have split into the landmasses known today; a word coined by meteorologist Alfred Wegener from the Greek pan and gaie, meaning "all" and "land".
- Plate: Large moving section of lithosphere that contains continents and seafloor.
- Plate tectonics: Theory that solid plates move on top of the putty like asthenosphere.
- Reverse fault: A fault where the rocks above the fault move up.
- Richter scale: Numerical description of the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake.
- Rift: Deep valley which runs down the middle of a mid-ocean ridge.
- Seafloor spreading: Theory that seafloor crust forms at mid-ocean ridges and then spreads in opposite directions.
- Seismic wave: Vibration produced by an earthquake.
- Seismograph: Instrument that measures and records seismic waves.
- Shield cone: Volcanic mountain with a broad base and gently sloping sides, made from lava flows.
- Sliding boundary: Place where two plates meet and slide past each other. Also known as a transform fault.
- Strike-slip fault: Fault where the rocks on either side of the fault break and slide past each other.
- Subduction: Pushing of the edge of one plate below the edge of another.
- Transform Fault: Place where two plates meet and slide past each other. Also known as a sliding boundary.
- Volcano: Opening in Earth's crust where melted rock reaches Earth's surface.
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