Do all the big words got you confused? Check out these
ON-LINE GLOSSARY OF SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL
High-Energy Astrophysics Dictionary
There are several temperature scales in use today. One degree of
difference is not the same in the various scales, and which
is called zero degrees also varies. The two most widely used
scales for everyday use are the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. A
scale that is used a lot in science (and astronomy in particular) is
Kelvin scale. These scales are described below:
- The Celsius scale was invented by the Swedish astronomer Anders
Celsius (1701-1744, Sweden). It is fixed by two temperatures:
degrees Celsius is the freezing temperature of water (at a standard
air pressure), and a hundred degrees Celsius is the boiling
of water at the same pressure.
- The zero point of the Celsius scale is practical, because below
degrees Celsius you have to watch for ice on the roads and for frozen
- Zero degrees Celsius corresponds to 32 degrees Fahrenheit and
273.15 kelvin. A hundred degrees Celsius corresponds to 212 degrees
and to 373.15 kelvin. To change from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees
use this link: Temperature Conversion Calculator.
- The Fahrenheit scale was invented by the German scientist Daniel
Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686 Poland - 1736 Dutch Republic). It is
by two temperatures: zero degrees Fahrenheit was the temperature of a
of water, ice, and salt. Ninety degrees Fahrenheit was what people in
days thought was the normal temperature of the human body.
- These two fixed points on the Fahrenheit scale were perhaps not
most practical choices, because most people do not spend a lot of
trying to keep water fluid by adding salt to it, and we now know that
temperature that people then thought was the normal temperature of
human body was in fact a few degrees wrong.
- Zero degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to about -17.8 degrees
and about 255.4 kelvin. One hundred degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to
37.8 degrees Celsius and to about 310.9 kelvin. To change from
Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, use this link: Temperature
- The Kelvin scale is named after the British scientist Lord
Thompson), Baron Kelvin of Largs. It is fixed by one temperature
a temperature difference: zero kelvin (don't say degree.
and don't write kelvin with a capital K) is the lowest possible
at which not even atoms move around anymore. A difference of one
corresponds to a difference of one degree Celsius. This scale was
by scientists for use in physics, because some formulas (those
pressure of a gas to its temperature, or brightness to temperature,
instance) become easier if you use the zero point of the Kelvin
You'll notice that the formulas for the equilibrium temperatures
are also simpler when the Kelvin scale is used. The symbol for kelvin
K, so you can write 100 kelvin also as 100 K.
Zero kelvin corresponds to -273.15 degrees Celsius and to -459.67
Fahrenheit. A temperature difference of one kelvin corresponds to a
difference of one degree Celsius, and 9/5 = 1.8 degree Fahrenheit. To
from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, use this link: Temperature Conversion Calculator.
- The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
maintains databases for standardizing thermometers.
As you surf each web site listed below, look for
about the questions listed directly below. At the quiz
you will be given an chance to check your learning.
As a focus - keep the
questions in mind:
is the Kelvin Scale ?
is the Celsius scale ?
is the Fahrenheit scale ?
is the temperature of sunspots ?
here to see the site
Solar-Terrestrial Physics division of the National
Geophysical Data Center is the focal
for data pertaining to solar
the ionosphere, and geomagnetic
click here to see the
- Researchers in the Solar Physics Branch
of the Naval Research Laboratory have been involved in
and theoretical studies of the solar atmosphere since the early years
the space age. Experiments developed at NRL have flown on NASA
such as Skylab/ATM, the OSO satellite series, the Space Shuttle
Spacelab-2 and Atlas missions.
Take The On-Line Quiz prepared by
Stanford Solar Center Here
Sunspot quiz. On this page, bite-sized portions of some of the
fascinating aspects about the Sun, in the form of questions. Along
way, we point to sources for more information so that you can explore
topics on your own ( Stanford
Solar Center) This site presents a collection of fun educational
based on Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI)
and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
Have a Solar
ask a Solar Physicist !
Now.......Let's look at some HOT
images of the sun
Welcome to the High
Altitude Observatory, which is dedicated to the study of the Sun
of the response of the Earth's upper atmosphere to the Sun's output.
a National Science
Foundation sponsored laboratory, the High Altitude Observatory is committed
the dissemination of its new knowledge to the community at large. by
Charbonneau and O.R. White.
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This page last updated 06/25/02